Could you please share some screenshots and some details like
Operating system(Exact version of Windows or MAC)
Exact version of InDesign.
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No need for screenshots or OS version, this is fairly basic stuff that has been an integral part of InDesign from its very first version.
There are two parts to this, slightly related to each other.
First, your illustrator image must contains some transparency.
By default, InDesign's screen drawing does not draw everything as accurate as possible. In particular, rendering transparent effects (such as native drop shadow and translucent objects, and in imported graphics) takes more time, and so for "plain" pages InDesign uses a faster algorithm. However, on pages with transparency a slower but more accurate algorithm is used - and the final result is different? But it is a screen "problem" only, the underlying 'data' is not affected. (That is, exporting to PDF exports your colors as they should. But when you view the document with Acrobat Reader, it - again - may use different algorithms to draw those same pages on-screen.)
You can see the same rendering for all pages if you switch "Overprint Preview" on. Everything will be drawn using the same - slow, accurate - algorithm.
The other half is: if the page is rendered "slow but accurate", why are the colors muted? Because your screen is drawing everything in RGB Space (by necessity, as it's how monitors work) but your document is in CMYK Space! InDesign knows that a monitor displays certain colors much brighter than their printed equivalents, and when displayed side by side, it will automatically show a same color in CMYK space muted. Just imagine the brightest possible pure green in RGB - no way this can ever be printed with CMYK inks.
The "accurate" screen drawing converts all colors to CMYK before they are rendered, because you state that you are working in CMYK. And when switching Overprint Preview to On, you will find that your entire document displays 'muted'.
You can change the document transparency space to RGB, which will do the opposite - if you use a CMYK color, it will be converted to RGB for display, but that's much less of a problem as it has to do so anyway (because, well, your screen needs RGB data to begin with).
Changing the transparency space from one type to another may have persistent side effects if you use certain blends, so check carefully what happens if you know that you are using these.
Vielen Dank für diese ausführliche Antwort. Den Transparenzfüllraum in RGB zu ändern hat das Problem gelöst.