To clarify the issue: If you select All Photographs in the Catalog panel in the upper-left corner, exit LR, and then restart LR, Previous Import will be selected, not All Photographs?
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You cannot set a default view; LR is designed to always pick up again, wherever you last were.
Exception: if your very first action in a given LR session, or subsequently, is to Import some pictures / videos - then the standard LR behaviour is to go and display that latest import batch instead.
This behaviour can now be suppressed:
LR Preferences / General tab / Import Options: uncheck 'Select the "Current / Previous Import" Collection during import'.
If there is a particular view that you keep returning to as you work (such as, All Photographs) then it would be for you to select that before closing LR (or straight after starting LR, or any other time - whenever you do it, it is the exact same amount of work to do!)
There's a useful "recent views" list just above the left side of the Filmstrip, rather than always needing to go and find that particular view in Library.
Maybe there is a future option for this.