Have you actualyl restarted your PS and even the computer? Hardware acceleration tends to go belly up at times when the buffers of your graphics card are full and that for all intents and purposes messes with blending modes just as well...
just tried and still having issue,not just on the black layer but all layers
Sorry but from those screenshots I can't tell much. You show two where it is working (on and off) then for the third image where it is not working - you show a completely different part of the image making it impossible to compare.
That said, from your description of the issue , I would test a separate document just to prove whether the issue is Photoshop or something in that document. If blending modes appear to be broken throughout - then I would do a preference reset.