It look like it is working correctly to me. You are painting with white 100% opacity & fill normal blending on the solid fill olive green layer's layer mask revealing the solid color. The layer above that layer are masked off for the most part so the green of the overlay solid fill layer shows in the composite where you paint white. The overlay blending mode does not change the layers 100% opacity and fill. Only the black and gray area of the layer mask does that. White will show the green area. There is no selection to constrain where you can paint. you can paint anywhere
So why is it different now? Is there a way to keep the same green that was on the uniforms
Also this problem is on any document i try to use this method on
Like JJMack I am not seeing the problem in your screenshots
If your previous masked layers are showing as semi-transparent when the layer below is removed then either the layer opacity has been turned down or the brush opacity was turned down whilst painting. Painting with a low opacity brush on a mask results in the mask being painted with grey not white - allowing the image to be semi-transparent.
Lower the brush opacity make is very low and build up the white in the mask after painting black. Or you could add a empty layer and paint with the color you want in that layer and blend it into the image layer.
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You could also select the Uniform layer mask in the Channels panel, sample the painted area with the Eyedropper tool, and then paint on the mask with this [Grey] color, using a 100% opacity brush. This would match your existing green, and you could save it as a Swatch for later use.
thanks a lot!