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Add more system resources by upgrading your computer or design your comps and your workflow with more efficient techniques.
Visual effects take a long time to render, they always have. Things are slowly improving but the more complex the composition the longer it is going to take to render.
Some video sources, like MPEG or MP4, take more system resources to decode before any processing takes place so be careful when selecting a format for your source videos.
Temporal effects take a long time to render. Large frame sizes take along time to render. Rendering time actually increases logarithmically with frame size so work at the Maximum frame size required for your project and not larger.
Assets, images, video, and illustrations that are significantly larger than the frame size of your project take longer to process than assets that will be at or 100% scale at some point in your composition.
Learn what effects slow things down and look for workarounds.
Pick a rendering workflow that matches the types of comps you are working on. Directly rendering an H.264 (a very good industry standard deliverable format) in the Adobe Media Encoder is going to take longer than rendering a digital intermediate using a fast rendering frame based visually lossless format directly in AE using the Render Cue and Output Module. For some complex projects the fastest way to a deliverable h.264 file is to render an image sequence from your comps in AE, edit the image sequence and sound in Premiere Pro and Audition, and then use the AME to render your compressed deliverable.
Don't do things in AE that you can do in Premiere Pro. Only use After Effects for creating composites and motion graphics that cannot be created in any other way, then edit in Premiere Pro. AE is for making shots, Premiere is for editing movies. Use the right tools for the job.
Now if you want to get specific about your workflow, your composition structure, your system and your delivery requirements we may be able to give you some more suggestions. I can give the same assignment to two students working on identical machines and have one project take several seconds per frame to render and the other take several minutes per frame and the end result will be almost identical. There is no magic button you can push, you just have to learn how things work and gain some experience to make the most of your hardware. My personal limit is 7 minutes per frame. If I can't get a complex comp to render faster than that I change something, but most of my work renders at several frames per minute.
However, what can I do to speed up the render time?
As Rick already said without any specifics nobody can even begin to advise. From file I/O to how some effects and features work there is a million things that influence render speed. This can ever only be tackled on a specific basis. The rest is just experience on how to tame the beast and avoid certain pitfalls. There's no magic button to make every project render fast.