Screen capture would be helpful. Adjustment layer are adjusted be targeting the and using the properties palette to make the adjustment. If you hover over the dodge tool it the timeout does not open the hidden tools like burn try a right click. If Photoshop seems to be not working try hitting ESC some tool may be active and waiting for you to do something ESC should cancel that. Screen captures would be helpful
It almost sounds like you might need to restart your computer. How much memory is on your computer? Are you running other applications at the same time? I had similar issues with computers with not enough memory or not enough hard drive space to use a scratch disc. This is just my guess.
Hope you figured it out by now, but if you didn't, this worked for me.
After you select the crop tool, but before you drag out a crop rectangle, click the clear button on the option bar and the tool will behave normally again. You can reapply preset crop sizes, and it will continue to work.