Did you get the Dialog?
If it use to work try resetting your preferences. Start Photoshop immediately if not sooner press and hold Ctrl+Shift+Alt. If done quickly on time Photoshop will pop-up a dialog asking if you want to delete your Preferences. Reply Yes see if Photoshop then starts OK.
Uninstalling and reinstalling does not reset Preferences.
I tired this again just on the hope that I wasn't clicking the right buttons.
But this is something I have already tried and unfortunately it still didn't work.
Hold down the Shift key when starting Photoshop. If that fixes it, then look at your plugins and extensions.
It would be helpful to know what OS you are using, but if the Shift key trick did not help, I'd next be checking fonts.
[EDIT] I have just noticed your user name, and I'm thinking you are a Mac user. That gives you more options for fixing font issues as per the guide I linked to above.