Your layers are all there and this has nothing to do with blending modes. The magic word of the day is color management - it's missing or your setup is crooked. Your details are still there ever so faintly, but they get mostly swallowed since PS's preview is not identical to your non-calibrated output and thus you inadvertently mis-tweak things. There's no easy answers to this complex subject, so you have to do some reading. Start by checking your CM prefs in PS and resetting your monitor to use or not use a color profile jus tas well as getting rid of any manual color tweaks you may have applied e.g. using your graphics driver.
Ah. That's frustrating. Ok, I'll look into my colour management setup, thank you