Either use a vector oriented application (Illustrator for example) or accept the consequences of your decisions, namely that when you sufficiently magnify a pixel image the pixels will become noticeable – and that is not »bad quality« so much as just the nature pf pixel images.
I created a 184x48 px 800ppi trasparent background......
The 800ppi means nothing until you print the document. So what you are drawing on is an image measuring 184x48 pixels. Your screenshot shows you have zoomed to 1600% which means 1 image pixel is mapped to 16x16=256 screen pixels. No wonder you can see a pixelated image! View it at 100% zoom and it should look small but OK. If you need it larger then you will have to work with more pixels.