Usually, when I right click and select a layer or group from the drop-down, it will show me where the targeted layer is in the layers panel (regardless if it was hidden in a group or artboard). This for some reason is no longer working, not sure if I activated/deactivated something but I'd like to have this back.
I do not use artboards so I do not know what drop-down you are referring too. If all setting look good and you reset all tool and that did not fix your problem try resetting your Photoshop preferences.
This seems to work fine for me. In the right click, you see every layer underneath the pixel you're clicking. You can then use the drop-down to get your focus on that layer (so you're moved to that layer in the layer panel). If you want to ONLY SEE the layer - you choose the layer you want to see, then go back and select Isolate Layer in the drop-down menu. That filters away all the other layers in your image.
This, all assuming you're talking CC2018?
Hope this helps.