Pixels have no actual size just a print resolution you use for a print. You can change that before you print. Image size unchek resample and set the print size you want. Photoshop will set the resolution. The size the pixels should be printed. Displays have a fixed size pixels you want the image a different size on a display you have to scale the insge to have fewer or more pixels Scaling can also be done by interpolation and sometime with vector graphic. Text is best scaled using vector graphic. Raster text does not scale well text quality suffers.
You could say Print resolution is Pixel size.
The nature of a digital image is that the pixels are always next to each other, there is no spacing or any way to do so. Even the white spaces are pixels.
If it is a text layer, you can try this trick: http://www.bittbox.com/photoshop/how-to-get-vector-text-in-photoshop-cs2
Edit: That's now called "Convert to Smart Object". From there you can use Ctrl/Cmd T (Free Transform) to scale the type layer.
Yes. Each pixel needs to be on its own layer though, so not practical if you are talking about actual pixels, but possibly doable if you are talking more in terms of a sort of mosaic. So below I have built such a mosaic, and have given each square a red border to show the outline.
If I now double the Canvas size
Move the outer layers and use the align tool as below
We eventually get to this. Doing something like this on a one pixel per layer though... Not something I'd want to have to do.
A pixel is just a data point, a sample point. It has no inherent physical size.
The faux mosaic approach, putting empty pixels between the live ones, would in fact work like a halftone screen. It would also increase the image size x4.
thats what i meant but you cant do that with a picture
Lots of great info the others have given on resolution. I suspect though that you are trying to create a visual effect and not do something related to image resolution. What you are asking for is somewhat similar to line screen (lpi) for printers that manage halftone patterns.
Do you want the image to look fragmented and chopped/separated apart or are you ok with what appears to be an overlaid grid on the image which separates the "pixels". Do you have a sample of what you ar etrying to accomplish?
You acutely need only ONE layer to do that. Make the layer a "layer" - (sorry for my english) and not a background layer - so it gets transparent (shown in red because the contrast is much better than the grey/white default). Then make the workspace a couple of times bigger. Take the selection tool (squared on) and select ONE row of pixels. Move that one pixel with the arrow key. Un select. Now select the next row AND the one you just moved. Move both one pixel - and so on. After doing it horizontally, do the same vertical.
Make a white layer and place under the picture layer.
It will take som time though....