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You cannot do this, it won't and can't work. And there's no reason to. This isn't nearly as complicated as you think.
The only way to translate numerical values is through icc profiles. That's why the whole concept of color management and icc profiles was invented. The numbers have no meaning outside icc profiles.
You just need to know which CMYK profile your printer wants. That's all there is to it. A simple conversion is all you need, all necessary parameters are built into the profile.
And just so we're clear: 255-0-0 does not translate into 0-100-100-0. You'd end up with a very different color. Again, it depends entirely on what specific profile those numbers refer to.
In theory a profile could do all manner of incorrect or special putpose conversions. But this eeould be hard because (to oversimplify) the RGB profile will convert RGB to Lab, and the CMYK profile would convert Lab to CMYK. Now, I wouldn’t say it’s impossible for someone with a good understanding of colour science and profile intervals to do this but...
There is “visually correct” and there is also “numerically correct”…
You could simply convert from RGB > Multichannel mode, then add a new 4th channel and ensure that it is white, then select mode > CMYK.
However I doubt that this will be of great benefit, even if it does achieve your original request.