My inclination in the situation you described, (where the client has signed off every step of the way, and then has a last-minute change of heart) would be to let the client know that you have delivered what they agreed to, and outside of minor changes, you consider the job complete, and they will receive and be billed for the finished work.
You will be happy to open a new job ticket for the new video they now want to do.
I'd be especially inclined to this approach if the same client did this time after time.
Since you are asking about video, would you like to have this moved to the Premiere Pro forum?
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There is a place called AICP ( Association of Commercial Producers ) for TV commercials, industrials, etc.
They have a ' Bid form ' which probably is available for download from their website. It is a pretty good GUIDE in terms of the basics of estimating costs and then recording REAL costs, and having a contract with client where that is honored legally.
It's probably worth looking at to just see what professionals do in the business. Then adjust what you see in terms of your own work and level of client, etc. and make a little contract they agree to as 'gentlemen' ( cause you can't trust them otherwise ).
Obviously, you may have to just eat the cost of doing something over due to customer not being happy, if you want to get paid ANYTHING for that product. People have been dealing with that for thousands of years. So you have to do it over and deliver product with smile and hope they come back.
As you get better clients and storyboards and more precise criteria ( and get better at providing product ) you'll be OK.
Don't give up.