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Output your file to WHAT??? Unless you specify, your question is meaningless.
In ACR in CS3, there is a popup called "workflow options".
I'm wondering which settings could be suggested as "normal" to send the file to CS3 for further adjustments. I'm assuming Prophoto space, 16 bits, no change to file size, and res. 300ppi. Since printing will be done at 300ppi, wouldn't it be ok to opt for it there rather than to specify it later in the workflow?
Output to what device ?
Printing on WHAT? What printer model? What paper size? What paper type?
Since you already decided that "printing will be done at 300ppi", it sounds like you already made up your mind. If so, why are you asking this question?
If I understand your question, the answer is it makes no difference. The ppi number at the bottom of ACR is divided into the actual pixel dimensions of your image, and the result is carried along as metadata in the form of vertical and horizontal dimensions. It has no effect upon your image and usually none on your workflow. Most of us leave it at the default 240.
Typically one edits the image at it's native pixel dimensions, those from the camera, until it's time to aim at a specific output device. At that time it is generally appropriate to specify the desired dimensions and resize to a ppi suitable for the output device.
A digital camera does not take pictures at any given resolution. The picture is taken with pixel dimensions. For instance, on my Nikon D40 to dimensions are 2000x3008 pixels. The only real value the resolution designation has is to give you an idea of how big the image will be at any given resolution. If you are going to print an image you will probably want to "squeeze" those pixels together to somewhere between 240-300 PPI to get an idea of how big your printed image will be. If you're going to display the image on your computer or on the Internet then 72 PPI should be adequate. But changing the PPI on a full-size image will not physically change the dimensions. You set the PPI according to the intention of use.
Thanks especially to Jim Hess and Richard Southworth.
I usually find it difficult to converse in online forums as opposed to "in person". I appreciate that you could understand my question though I probably didn't present it properly. I also appreciate the answers.