Not that I know. Unfortunately you cannot even explicitly select markers to copy them. However, comp markers will appear as layer markers when nested and can be updated by replacing the footage with the same source comp in the timeline. CS4 even added a right-click command to update them. Still, not the most elegant way...
I discussed this with an engineer directly involved with scripting in AE. Unfortunately, there is no scripting support for Comp-time markers (which would be a way to give you what you want) at this point. He took note and a feature request was filed.
In case you ever find it useful (I know I would), at the redefinery web site there is a script which will copy layer markers to another layer: