A search of PS-CS3 ehlp systems turned up 5 references to "high pass" in PS but the term actually appears only one place:
High Pass Retains edge details in the specified radius where sharp color transitions occur and suppresses the rest of the image. (A radius of 0.1 pixel keeps only edge pixels.) The filter removes low-frequency detail from an image and has an effect opposite to that of the Gaussian Blur filter.
It is helpful to apply the High Pass filter to a continuous-tone image before using the Threshold command or converting the image to Bitmap mode. The filter is useful for extracting line art and large black-and-white areas from scanned images.
Searching in AE's help system I get 8 hits but the term never actually shows up anywhere except as an audio filter.
So, umm, I think this can be faked with many filters. Depends on what you're trying to accomplish in AE. Sounds like Unsharp Mask but I'm sure you already know how to use that one.
The Unsharp Mask effect increases the contrast between colors that define an edge.