An easy workaround for light or dark dust would be working on a duplicate layer and setting it to Blend Mode Darken/Lighten respectively (or as a Smart Filter and set that to …).
Thanks for your reply. I am mostly concerned with the artifact issue.
Light/dark dust is the matter of convenience.
Yes the way to do this would be to use the new(ish) healing technology.
Dust and scratches is still a good filter even these days, and the "artifacts" you are seeing are probably to do with the original image, or more likely wrong balance between radius and threshold.
Artifacts from this filter are visible with pretty much any settings where the threshold is more than 1-2.
Would be very cool to see this filter remove dust from fabric and retain the fabric texture. Could save enormous amounts of retouching.
There is an old and tried and true method for using the Dust & Scratch filter that you may not be aware of.
Apply the desired settings and immediately make a snapshot via the History panel options (not the camera icon) and choose merged layers from the dialogue box instead of the default setting. Make a new empty layer and with the History Brush selected, click the box to the left of the snapshot icon to reference the snapshot. Now just click on the dust and scratches you want to remove and leaving the rest of the image unaltered.
This method works great but is a bit involved. If this feature could be implemented within the D&S filter it would make it a lot easier and effective to use.