Yes, but with much more tedium and bother than it's worth.
Illustrator's very limited 3D feature is not really intended for this kind of modeling. It cannot do pipeline extrusions or polygonal surface modeling, or cross-section lofting. It can't even individually orient multiple objects within a single 3D coordinate system.
So, yeah, if you undestand what AI's 3D Effect can and can't do, and have a basic understanding of why--and if you just insist upon doing such a thing with it nonetheless--you could devise and employ the workarounds necessary to construct what looks something like a "3D model" of that bow. But it would really be a stack of individual 3D Effect objects merely arranged on the page to look like a single model. And compared to any decent 3D modeling today, it would look quite crude and unfinished (as does your example).
In other words, in the terms of your question, an Illustrator "pro" wouldn't even approach that illustration project in that way.
A skilled hand using Illustrator appropriately could easily build a much more realistic, much more convincing, and much more pleasing rendering of that bow. The result would not be an actual 3D model; but it would look more 3D "real", even to the point of photo-realism, if that is the stylistic goal.
Thank you very much for your attention.