No, unfortunately not. This stuff is part of Adobe's specific UI libraries and cannot be changed. The main application menu should respect your settings though, as should file dialogs and a few text input fields, if that's any consolation. If possible, simply define a user preset in your graphics card settings that switches screeen resolution and system dpi when launching AE or any other Adobe app. Good monitors have good scaling chips, so it should not look all too shabby and you can always go back full res for pixel precision when needed...
Thanks for the reply. I don't think switching resolutions is very practical
though as I'm often multi-tasking between non-Adobe apps, and scaling to a
non-native resolution on an LCD never really looks all that great. Adobe
should really think about adjustable interface sizing. Such a function
seems like it should have already been included. The web as a whole and web
apps have been considering the varying resolutions and screen sizes of users