I am having the same problem when printing from Adobe Reader v10.0. Note in the example (and in my documents as well), the all the "garbled" characters are shifted to the next alphanumeric character, for example: "a" prints as "b", "1" prints as "2", space prints as "!", etc. (so the example's page number 53 is "garbled" as 64). Reprinting the same document usually results in the correct characters. In my case, the error occurs when the printer is active.
I am experiencing the exact same problem. I can confirm the same behaviour on my problematic systems, that is loading the original poster's file displays fine, but when printing the file contains garbled characters.
The same issue happens on our systems as well. Specifically, I have a number of systems, all running under a Windows Active Directory, with Reader deployed via GPO. Now, some systems were connected to Citrix servers. One of this Citrix apps did something funny to the locale of the systems. That was it!
As is, the exact same file is printed just fine, from systems that have never executed that Citrix app, whereas the other ones produce garbled characters. The citrix application is now not used at all, but after trying a zillion things, I still can't find out a way to make the problematic rigs print pdf just fine again...
This is a sample pdf: http://www.pieria.gr/problematic.pdf
Note that I have tried "Print as image" but it didn't work as well...
Citrix offers various printing solutions, not to mention the 3rd party solutions (ie. Tricerat).
Can you clarify your farm topolgy please?
Is this using UPD (Universal Printer Driver), is there a print server, spooler, etc.
Which version of Acrobat/Reader x Citrix server (XenApp/XenDesktop/versions)?
I am not aware whether this might be helpful to the original issue posted here, but I've solved my own issue, which was a font substitution one. Essentially, I removed one registry entry, that is "Arial,0" under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\FontSubstitute, and rebooted.
That did the trick for me.