I doubt it. If so, it would probably involve installing Windows emulation software liek WINE or a virtual machine...
I emailed Prime Focus and they responded in a couple hours!
ME: your website makes it sound I can render a job on any cross-platform slave. Does this mean I can render AE and C4D files on a cheap Linux farm?
THEM: Deadline itself is a cross-platform application, but it can only render on operating systems that the rendering software itself supports. So AE and C4D will only work on Windows and OSX.