For #1, if you look at the image in Bridge you can note the dimensions and resolution...you would then need to put that same resolution in the ACR resolution field.
For #2, no...as you note the ACR Preference controls whether or not Camera Raw will be used to open the image. You can use the Shift key when double clicking in Bridge to open the image directly into Photoshop and bypass the ACR dlog, but Camera Raw will still be used if it's set to be used in the Preferences...
You'll need to keep your image resizing just in Photoshop because Camera Raw is not designed to do that sort of resize/resampling...it's designed first and foremost as a raw processor and later added the ability to open and process camera JPEGs and TIFFs. Putting those kind of controls into Camera Raw wouldn't make sense since the end result of an image opened into Camera Raw is supposed to be an image processed and opened into Photoshop. So, what you are wishing for is really outside of the scope of the development design...sorry.
Jeff, thank you! I realize that what we're using RAW for is not its main purpose so I didn't think I'd ever find an answer, but both of your suggestions are very easy workarounds. I'm not very familiar with Bridge so I didn't realize the image size was right there. I'll pass these tips along to the rest of my office.