You can apply the Cartoon effect with some settings set to less extreme values, and with Render set to Fill (not Fill & Edges) to get the result that you describe. See the second image on this page: "Cartoon effect"
You can do this kind of effect pretty easily using some subtle settings in the cartoon effect or using some color correction tools with harsh settings. Variations of color can be build with Mosaic, Cell, Turbulent Displace, Fractal Noise etc. used on top or as displacments.... The edges can be done using simple Find edges and Roughen Edges. you just need to work with multiple layers and apply the effects selectively, then use blending modes to bring it all together.
As long as we're talking about plugins, investigate DigiEffects' Van Goughist, part of their legacy product Berserk.
It was terribly unstable and renders like treakle on a cold day but it was cool.