I'm looking into purchasing the "Adobe Creative Suite 5 Production Premium Student and Teacher Edition." I imagine, because it's the Student/Teacher edition, After Effects (as well as the other Adobe programs) will be missing some features/tools, that are only available in the non-Student/Teacher edition. What are those missing features/tools?
Nothing is missing.
from the "Student and Teacher Edition FAQ":
"Adobe Student and Teacher Editions are the same full versions of some of our commercial software titles, priced at discounts for students, faculty, teachers, and administrators. "