Why Yes! There are several ways to pre-fill a PDF. Which technique depends on where the data comes from and where the PDF is going.
and LiveCycle forms can be connected directly to a DB.
On the server side there is a whole host of third party tools for filling forms and of course Adobe has tools as well. In fact PDF form data handling is built into ColdFusion.
The Acrobat plug-in SDK has a Forms model for just this purpose and there is an ActiveX interface to Acrobat that can access individual form fields.
The source for PDF Scripting Info