Unless that function has been added in PrE 9, unfortunately no. To test (I'll bet that you have already done so), make sure to Select your Text (Bounding Box forms), and then use the Arrow Keys.
PrPro's Titler has had this function for a very long time, but it has never seemed to make it into PrE.
One thing that might prove useful is an alignment grid, as outlined and provided in this ARTICLE.
There is also a pair of alignment tools in Titler - vertical and horizontal center for alignment.
For a Feature Request, see this ARTICLE. I've filled in one from PrE 4, but no luck so far.
For your first question use the mouse to get the object about where you wish it. You can then right-click and select Transform> Position. You can use cursor keys to increase / decrease the XY position. However it is not a realtime effect. After adjusting the positions you must click OK to see where the objects will appear.
For your second question the Align Objects command worked fine for me. Perhaps I'm misunderstanding what you are trying to achieve.
Insanity is hereditary, you get it from your children
That's a neat trick. I did not know that it existed. Now, realtime is what I am used to, but this does allow some cursor key nudging.
I am having the same issue of moving text. I did find in Elements 8 you were able to use the Ctrl+Alt keys will pressing the arrows, it would move your text in small increments. I tried this in Elements 10 and I am not able to use this shortcut. Any Ideas? Very frustrating.