Alas no presets for transitions.
You could change the default duration for transitions in your preferences.
Is there a way to create my own "Quick Cross Dissolve" preset?
Well, sort of, with a little artful subterfuge...
I set my default transition to a specific duration--let's say 1 second. Then, I'd set up a dissolve on an edit, and tweak the duration--let's say 10 frames. I select it, copy it, and then as I'm editing, I can either paste where I need the shorter transition or use Ctrl+D to apply the default transition. If I copy something else (e.g. a clip), I usually already have an instance of the shorter transition somewhere I can quickly click, copy, and paste in the current sequence.
No, not as good as the real thing, but it might speed things up a bit. In the meantime, you might want to make a feature request for transition presets here: Adobe Feature Request/Bug Report Form