PDF files shouldn't ballon too much but can depending upon your printer and printer driver. For example, if you have a postscript printer and the fonts used in your document are not embedded as font subsets, then the entire font may have to be sent to the printer. This can cause a printer spool size to get much larger.
If you have a raster image printer, then the printer driver is converting the entire file to dots that need to be printed. This can cause a spool file to be HUGE especially if you have your printer set to print at a higher resolution. When you print to image, you are also converting your image to dots, but you can control the dots per inch and the default is probably much smaller then your printer's default resolution.
It has nothing to do with the printer. PDFs printed just fine before upgrading to Adobe X.
The files are a simple 1 page PDF that's about 3.3KB in size. But in the printer queue they show up as being 30MB in size. And it sends 30MBs to the printer which of course isn't normal and is a problem.
I am having this same issue in my office. The printer will partially print the document and also spits out a page about the printer being out of memory. Selecting "Print as Image" is our only work around but this sends a large slow page to the printer.
This was not an issue with version 9.
I believe I have found a working solution to this. I've upgraded the driver for our printers (all are HP printers) to using the HP Universal Print Driver v5.2 and everything seems to be printing fine now.