Your best bet would be going to Control Panel > Programs > Programs and Features and double-clicking Adobe Photoshop. It has a "Repair" and an "Uninstall" button, so maybe you can try clicking "Repair" and it won't ask for a CD? Make sure you have backups of your settings and extensions if possible!
Other than uninstalling the program altogether, I can't think of any other way to fix Photoshop without it starting up first. Good luck!