I've seen this thread. It was the first thing to come up when I googled the error code. I've downloaded both the .exe and the .msi and tried installing both, all I get is the app trying to install but it doesn't start extracting files or anything, it just sits.
The system requirements for Adobe Reader X require Windows Vista SP2
This could be contributing to the error you're seeing:
Additionally, you may want to try download the non-DLM version of Adobe Reader X from here: ftp://ftp.adobe.com/pub/adobe/reader/win/10.x/10.0.0/en_US/AdbeRdr1000_en_US.exe
Acrobat Community Manager
If you still experience issues with MSI version of the installer, can you please provide better information?
What happens when you double click on MSI file?
I did not find Service Pack being a hard stop requirement for Reader X.