Generally yes, but this ends up quickly like on "Little Britain": "Yes, but no...." A lot of your success will depend on the lighting itself, not so much the post work. You need to think of a "neutral" color scheme mostly and colorize your environment with the light, then shoot in passes so you can munch together the pieces as you need. If you don't have access to a motion control rig, this essentially means you will have to shoot with tripod and replicate any pans and tilts by hand or limit yourself to static shots. You should also pay a lot of attention to controlling the gloss of your objects, like flattening it with matte hairspray or in reverse, make objects look metal-ish by making them wet. If you have specific coloring in mind, it wil lalso help to work with strong colors on the "hero" objects - a pink girly calculator may look ridiculous, but can easily be dialed to look golden with a color correction. The same should apply to the actors - think of ways to separate them from the environment on set as much as possible by setting up differently colored lighting for the foreground and background and working with a consistent color scheme. This will also help to retain depth and contrast - simply tinting everything yellow will look just like that - the world through yellow shades. Instead try to capture the multitude of different gold shades from reddish copper to silverish platinum alloys and use the natural colors as a base - e.g. on a golden tree, the leaves would still very likely look different from the bark. Subtle color shifts might do that better than tints.
You've got to consider that gold is reflective. There are a bunch of tricks like displacement mapping and overlays to simulate reflections. It's best if the objects that you're turning to gold are already reflective. Think plastic or glossy paint.
I'd try Colorama as the effect to turn the cut-outs to gold. There's a great preset right inside Colorama's output cycle called Gold...
Here's a sample project. Note the use of blend modes, mask feather, and opacity.
I'd work backwards on a project like you've described. It's easier to make something look non-reflective than the other way around. So, in your calculator example, I'd spray paint the calculator gold, and I'd use effects to remove the gold colouring at the start of the shot, rather than add the gold to a black object. It's easier to crush white reflected highlights than add them.