I can't help, but I'm having exactly the same problem.
I ended up downgrading to version 9 (uninstalling Adobe X and Adobe Air first) and things are back to normal.
You can get previous versions of Adobe at http://get.adobe.com/reader/otherversions
Same problem. Can't open any PDFs anymore after installing version X two days ago....Every time when opening a PDF, the Reader crashes within a few seconds.
When just opening the Reader itself, without opening a file, no menu items at all appear, just a outer frame with the Adobe logo on top appears, the rest is blank.
Never had any problems with previous versions.
My operating system is Windows 2007.
I am having the exact same issue. Solution please!