IF it's possible, and I'm not at all sure it is, I would think the file info in Bridge would be the place to start.
INDD Documents do not store what Book they are in. I don't think they track it in any way.
It is, however, fairly easy to search through a set of books to see if it contains a given document. Book files are small and they store the filenames of their constitutent documents in almost plain text.
So you could use any searching tool to search the contents of your .INDB files for the INDD files you're looking for. What OS?
Is there a way to find out which books a document is in, without looking through all of the books you have created? Any help would be greatly appreciated.
If the InDesign files have been output to PDF, full Acrobat's search feature (Edit > Advanced Search) may be worth a look. If you need to search through large numbers of PDFs often, you can create a searchable index for faster searching, that can be scheduled to update itself. Search Google for terms like "acrobat pro create create maintain searchable index" without quotes for details.