You can make the text frame an anchored object.
If you have InDesign CS5 or CS5.5 you can use Span Columns on the table. Here I have done jus that using InDesign CS5. The selected text show you that all the text before the table flows into two columns, then the table appears below, then following text below the table back in two columns.
Whether you are working with a two-column text frame, or two frames linked together (as you would get if you auto-flowed text into a page that has column guides but no existing text frame), you can get what you want, but you will have to keep an eye on it.
- Make a new text frame that is as wide as both columns.
- Make a table inside the text frame.
- Select the text frame (not the table inside) and give it some text wrap on the top and bottom, but leave the sides at zero.
- Copy the text frame and paste it in-line where you want in the two-column text chain.
- Drag the right side of the anchored text frame so that it spans both columns. Because of the text wrap, it will deflect the text in the right-hand column as well.
- Space the cells of the table to fit your needs.
- The part you need to watch for is that the two-column frame-with-table will look fine if it's in the left column, but if it goes to the right, it will either poke into the right facing-page (if you are using facing pages) or the pasteboard (if you aren't, or if it's on the right column of a right facing-page).
I like Scott's method better, but I haven't used Span Column before, but when I tried, I couldn't get the text to flow left to right above the table, then continue below it.
EDIT: I was trying with auto-flowed text, which made two side-by-side text frames, rather than one two-colum text frame. I got it to work in the two-column frame.
I have been using Span Collumns for a while now and have created paragraph styles just for spanning. The problem I have is, some in my organization do not like the text flowing two columns above then two columns below the figure or table that spans the 2-column frame. In other words, in your example, the second half of the highlighted text would continue after the table in the left column. Can I design this while using spanning with my image and caption style spanned?