Adobe has some decent resources on their support site(s). I do not know of any books that could help you. There are some like "Real World Color Management" and others. You are in an open-loop workflow. Unfortunately, files are unpredictable. I would recommend sending all of your customers your color settings and profiles so they can build the file to your specs. This will cut down dramatically on the many differences. Communicate with your customers and encourage them to contact you early on in the file prep process.
if you want to to do any faithful Conversion(s) to monitor space(s), target space(s), or print space(s) — you will FIRST need to use embedded profiles or Assign the correct profiles (if the profiles are missing)
when you are handed a 'problem' file, open it, and determine if you are using the embedded profile, or unknowingly Applying your own default working profile, or manually Assigning the wrong profile...ultimately you need to use (ie, Apply, Assign) the correct source profile to your file (that becomes a guessing game if the profile wasn't embedded or noted for you)
until this is understood from every possible angle, you won't get good consistent monitor or printed proofs (unless the file happens to be in your default working space or it has already been converted to your proofing space)
I recommend giving this a thorough read: www.gballard.net/psd/cmstheory.html