Turn off Render Multiple Frames Simultaneously multiprocessing. Does it work then?
Also, make sure that you are showing thumbnails in the Project panel (i.e., the Disable Thumbnails In Project Panel option is not checked).
Turned off Render Multiple Frames. Thumbnails are on. No difference.
I think I'm going to bite the bullet, scale it up 4X and try to do a Save Frame as Photoshop Layers.
What version of After Effects?
I went ahead and rebuilt the whole thing If I re-import Illustrator file as Comp / Layer Size. Change Radial Wipe to Linear Wipe, then Continuous Rasterize works just fine.
Probably an issue with the polar coordinate transformation in Radial Wipe... I guess it's good that I have this exact same setup in my collection of awesome expression rigs for a long time and never needed to bother with this particular issue...