Well I got it to install again by fully starting up a brand new project, rebuilding it, and then syncing it. I'm not sure why it worked this time when I did it but I'm going to mess with it some more this weekend and see if I can continue to make updates to that application without it breaking again.
Turns out, with iOS deployment, you cannot utilize embed data that is stored in your src folder. (i.e. if you have a GFX or Fonts folder in the src directory or a sub package that you use to embed data in your application, move all of that data outsid of your 'src' folder in it's own folder outside of that instead instead.) The embed tags just need to be updated to point to the right location, but iOS won't let you install the application on the device in this scenario.
I believe I've been having the same problem as this, I even created my own thread not having found this one.
I very much did have my resources folder directly under source but have now moved it to be on the same level as source
But it's still have the Failed to Install problem. Is my project structure still incorrect with this or do I have to start another project and do it all again? It almost seems as doing it once corrupts the entire project.