You may want to put the issue in the Audition forum: http://forums.adobe.com/community/audition/audition_general
Generally, Audition can convert audio up to 192000 Hz, 32 bit, but if using for video, I believe PrPro prefers 48000 Hz, 16 bit - I may be wrong.
From what I can tell, it's a problem with Premiere exporting, not Audition importing though. I have the 192000 Hz, 32 bit files working just fine in the Premiere timeline so it doesn't appear to have to much of an issue with editing it, it just exports it at a much lower quality when sending it to Audition
It seems like the only way I can keep that audio quality is to sync sound in Audition and that's not ideal for me.
I'm having the same issue with Premiere CC 2016/Audition CC 2017.
I'm working with audio assets that were recorded at 192000 Hz.
From Premiere, when I right-click on a piece of said audio and choose "Edit Clip in Audition", the clip that shows up in Audition CC 2017 shows a sample rate of 8000 Hz and the sound is noticeably degraded.
Appears to be a bug.
As a workaround, if you down-sample the 192000 Hz audio to 96000 Hz, it appears to export from Premiere into Audition at 96000 Hz.
I'm in the process of doing this with my current project and it seems to be working so far.
I used Audition to batch down-convert all my individual audio files (I had almost 100 files of audio) from 192000 Hz to 96000 Hz.
I didn't wanted to preserve the original 192000 Hz files, so I saved the down-converted files with a "96K" extension in the batching routine.
This saved everything as <originalname>_96K.wav, which was nice.
Then in Premiere in my main project window, I did a "Replace Footage" in each individual audio file -- and this automatically updated the audio in my various timelines (I'm well into editing this project and have 6 videos that I'm creating for the client).
And that worked as a workaround.
Still would be nice if this worked as it should though with 192000 Hz files in the first place.