You're talking about an image sequence. 3D apps, Cad apps, and other animation apps all render these types of sequences. Image sequences have always been supported in After Effects. Just navigate to the folder containing the image sequence, select the any image, and make sure that image sequence is checked.
It is advisable to keep the image sequence naming simple. For example myanimation_0001.jpg, myanimation_0002.jpg, and so on. Make sure that you have enough leading zeros when you export the sequence. Image sequences can be any image format.
The frame rate for image sequences is set by default to 30 in the Preferences but may be set to match any projects using Fine>Interpret Footage.