By adjustment menu, you do mean Adobe Camera Raw?
Try to open the image as a smart object. When you'll double-click on the smart object, you'll be able to edit it. Anyways, the controls are the same as in Lightroom, so I'm curious as of why you would want to see ACR...
I don't use Lightroom but would venture a guess or two. If you open a raw file in Lightroom and use Lightroom Develop module then use lightroom to open that image in Photoshop as image or as a smart object there is no reason to need the ACR window for the RAW file been through Adobe RAW conversion engin. There are ACR settings set and there may even be a rgb image in memory. Therefore there is no reason to display the ACR user interface the RGB Image can be passed or the ACR settings and RAW data can be passed the Adobe RAW conversions which can produce the RGB images to be edit. If you open the RAW image as a smart object if you double click on the smart object icon in the smart object layer in the Layers palette the ACR user interface will open so you can make adjustment fot the smart object which you must have ACR open in photoshop and use Photoshop save to have Photoshop undate the enbedded smart objects ACR setting. The interface the will open will be ACR user interface not Develop module interface.